When performing cylinder leakage tests, the following tips might be helpful:

• Remove all spark plugs to allow easier rotation of the engine. (If this test is done
after a compression test, the plugs should already be out).

• Perform the leakage test on all cylinders, not just the problem cylinder. This would
indicate any other problems which can be rectified. This eliminates any repeat
repairs and wasted diagnostic time.

• Perform the leakage test in cylinder firing order starting with cylinder #1. It takes two
revolutions of the engine to complete the leakage test. Start at cylinder #1 and
rotate the engine to the next cylinder in the firing order. Divide the number of cylinders
into 720, the result is the number of degrees that each cylinder fires.

For example,
if you divide a 6 cylinder into 720, this equals 120 degrees. If you start at cylinder
1 and rotate the engine 120 degrees in the direction of rotation, you can check
the next cylinder in the firing order. This process eliminates the need to rotate the
engine an excessive amount.

The graphic depicts an engine with a firing order of: 1-5-3-6-2-4

If leakage is found monitoring area of loss will indicate failed component.

For example, excessive leakage on gauge and:
heard from exhaust would indicate a failed exhaust valve.
heard from intake manifold would indicate failed intake valve.
found in cooling system would indicate failed head gasket or cracked cylinder head.
heard in dipstick tube would indicate faulty piston rings.


In the 1950s the bodies for the Porsche 356 were built and fully painted at the Reutter factory and then delivered with windows and interior equipment. Porsche subsequently undertook fitting of the engine and running gear. In 1964, Porsche purchased the Reutter carbody factory. This meant that for the first time Porsche was in possession of an independent automobile factory.


In 1969, vehicle assembly moved into the newly built multistory building on Schwieberdinger Straße. At that time, vehicle interior equipment was fitted on the third floor. Installing the engine and bolting together the running gear followed on the second floor.


In 1979, a second production line was introduced for the production of the Porsche 928.


This was the first time that a hanger system was used in running gear installation, which was adopted for the Porsche 911 a short time later. At the beginning of the 1980s, Porsche converted to movement on skids on the third floor. The assembly process was still executed on a static vehicle. However, at the end of the cycle assemblies were forwarded automatically within the respective production section. In the meantime, production technology at Porsche has been developed further so that the Boxster and 911 are now both assembled using the mixed-model system on a continuous line.

Since 1987, bodies welded previously in the main plant have been transported from a newly erected body shell production site over a bridge to the paint shop and then fed to the assembly hall.



The upholstery section was initially housed in the body shell assembly building belonging to Reutter. The front and rear seats, convertible tops and interior trims were produced here for the Porsche 356. With the run down of the Porsche 356 model range, seat production was transferred to Recaro. As from this point the Porsche 911 was manufactured exclusively as a Coupé, production of convertible tops was no longer required. In 1969, the upholstery section was moved to the newly constructed assembly building. Since this time a continued growth in the proportion of leather used for panel trim can be observed, a trend which continues today.


The expansion of capacity for vehicle assembly made it necessary to move the upholstery section to the building previously used for engine assembly.

After 1982 all upholstery areas were brought together and accommodated in the high-bay warehouse building. Production of convertible tops was taken up again for the 911 Cabriolet and Targa models. However, partially with the introduction of the Porsche Boxster in 1996 and then completely on the arrival of the new Porsche 911 in 1997 it was transferred to the subsidiary jointly owned with DaimlerChrysler.


Despite numerous technical innovations, such as the use of automatic sewing machines since the end of the 1980s or the spraying of adhesive, work in the upholstery section is characterized by its craftsmanship to this day. This is also reflected in the number of employees, which increased from around 60 in the mid 1950s to 250 today.




The results of the annual New England Book Show have been announced by Book Builders of Boston. Karl Ludvigsen’s Ferdinand Porsche–Genesis of Genius has won Best in Category within the Pictorial books category. Full listings of the 52nd annual New England Book Show winners is on the Book Builders of Boston website.

Description of The New England Book Show from the website:

The New England Book Show is an annual juried show that recognizes the year’s most outstanding work by New England publishers, printers and graphic designers. Winning books are selected for their design, quality of materials, and workmanship. Books, covers, and other media are judged in categories that include el-hi, college, trade, juvenile, etc.

The winning entries are displayed at a festive dinner, where attendees receive a handsome catalog containing photos, specifications, and production credits for each winner.

The 2009 New England Book Show will be held on Tuesday April 21 at the Fairmont Copley Plaza in Boston.



Engine production started in 1948 in Gmünd/Corinthian with a four-cylinder Boxer engine for the Porsche 356, a VW engine that had undergone further development. Only shortly after the return of Porsche to Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen in 1950, engine production moved in 1953 into its own purpose-built building, Werk II.


In 1963, with the launch of the Porsche 911, production of the first version of the new six-cylinder Boxer carburetor engine began on an assembly line for the first time. With the expansion of the product range (1974: Porsche Turbo, 1977: Porsche 928, 1978: Porsche 924 Turbo etc.) a parallel assembly line was needed. Technical innovations, such as pneumatic and electric bolting systems, gradually contributed to the improvement of the production processes.


1985 saw an increase in production quantities triggered by a higher demand for the models Porsche 924 S/944. Since this time engine assembly has operated two shifts, apart from brief interruptions.

1993 marked another milestone. With the start of production of the fundamentally reworked 911 (development number 993), engine production was transferred to a continuously moving assembly line.

The test run on the engine test rig (hot test) remained an unchanged feature of engine production over the years. Every Porsche engine built to date has passed through this reliable procedure.






At his company, which moved during the War from Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen to Gmünd in Austria (Corinthian), Ferry Porsche started in 1947 to build “a sportscar, that I would like myself” with the aid of his reliable team. The starting point was the Volkswagen Beetle developed by his father. Fifty-two examples of the 356 model (not including number 1 off the line) were produced in Gmünd, all of the other vehicles produced after 1950 were built in Zuffenhausen. Initially Porsche’s design and administration departments were accommodated at Schwieberdinger Straße 147 in two wooden huts. Body production and vehicle assembly was completed in buildings owned by the Reutter carbody factory on the opposite side of the street. Porsche’s original plant premises, now Werk I, were occupied after the War by the Americans and could not be used again until 1956.


A further milestone was marked by the construction of a new building for Porsche engine and vehicle assembly in 1953. Shortly after the launch of the Porsche 911, the Reutter production buildings including body shell assembly were taken over by Porsche in 1964. A further important step was the completion of the three-story assembly hall (building 41) in 1969, which made it possible to increase capacity. In 1982, an automated high-bay warehouse was added. With the completion of the new paint shop next to the assembly hall in the spring of 1986 and the body shell assembly (Werk V) in August 1988, the current building structure took shape.



The Porsche 356 body was produced by hand at the Reutter carbody factory. The outer skin, comprising several pieces welded together, was placed on a basic vehicle frame. The gaps were filled with soft solder, a costly and time-consuming process, and ground off. In 1965, Porsche 356 production was shut down. At the end, the number of units produced totaled 25 bodies per day. With the launch of the Porsche 911 in 1964 Porsche broke away from the previous production methods. Various assemblies were now pre-assembled and then welded or bolted together to form the body. In 1973, Porsche was the first in the automobile industry to weld galvanized sheet-metal panels into the Porsche body. This marked a milestone in corrosion protection for automobiles.


The first robot put into operation at Porsche was a welding robot for the 911 rear axle transverse tube. 1988 marked the beginning of a new era in body shell assembly. The newly constructed body plant was opened for use, with 15 robots in operation for the first time. In July 1989, the last 911 body left the old Reutter building.

With the launch of the latest generation of vehicles, the degree of automation was increased while retaining the same level of flexibility. The mixed-model system is used in production so that the Boxster and 911 can be built in any order.




Ludvigsen with Lord Montagu

Ludvigsen with Lord Montagu

Bentley Publishers congratulates author Karl Ludvigsen for his honors at the annual Guild of Motoring Writers dinner Friday, December 12 at the Royal Automobile Club in London. Ludvigsen took home three awards, including the Montagu of Beaulieu Trophy, presented by the Lord Montagu himself (pictured above on the right with Ludvigsen), for his landmark book Ferdinand Porsche – Genesis of Genius. This trophy is given annually to “the Guild member who makes the greatest contribution to recording, in the English language, the history of motoring or motorcycling.”

More on the awards ceremony below:

Hat Trick of Awards for Journalist-Author

LONDON 12 December 2008 – In a glittering ceremony at the Royal Automobile Club here, three of the twenty awards given by the respected Guild of Motoring Writers for 2008 went to a single honouree. Suffolk-based Karl Ludvigsen was the recipient.

The Guild’s Award for Automotive Technology Journalism went to Ludvigsen for his article about the evolution of the Porsche 911 engine published in AutoAficionado magazine. The award, which recognises ‘excellence in writing technical articles valued by specialists but also interesting to non-specialists,’ was presented by its sponsor, technology communications company Market Engineering.

For the second time Karl Ludvigsen received the Aston Martin International Trophy, ‘recognising excellence in journalistic achievement by a Guild member working in the international field.’ The award cited Ludvigsen’s in-depth profile of controversial FIA president Max Mosley, published in America’s Automobile Quarterly.

Ludvigsen’s third award-perhaps the most prestigious-was the Montagu of Beaulieu Trophy, sponsored by Mercedes-Benz and presented by Lord Montagu, creator of Britain’s National Motor Museum. Its recipient is ‘the Guild member who makes the greatest contribution to recording, in the English language, the history of motoring or motorcycling.’

Recognised by the judges for 2008 was Ludvigsen’s Ferdinand Porsche-Genesis of Genius. A magisterial history of Porsche’s early life and work, it was published by Bentley Publishers. This was Ludvigsen’s third Montagu since he was the Trophy’s first winner in 1972.

‘I hardly know what to say,’ reacted a surprised Ludvigsen. ‘I’m very grateful to the Guild and the judges who thought these works deserving. These awards are tremendously motivating to an author. I’ll do my best to live up to their standards.’

As well as trophies the awards carried cash prizes. Karl Ludvigsen was £3,500 better off after the evening.



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